# How to Prepare Instrumentation Engineering (IN) For GATE

Instrumentation Engineering is one of the relatively popular branches among M.Tech aspirants. In 2016, GATE had 18,045 applicants for Instrumentation Engineering. It is one out of 23 papers in GATE  exam 2017 syllabus. Aspirants with Instrumentation Engineering background can opt for this paper during Gate exam. To aid and propel preparation efforts of the GATE aspirants for Instrumentation Engineering, AfterGraduation brings forth preparation guidelines, tips, topic to study, books etc to crack it with good score.

GATE 2017 Exam is a gateway for qualifying candidates to secure admission for various Post Graduate programs in IITs, NITs and other centrally funded institutions. GATE score can also be used pursue your career in various PSU’s. Aspirants  may use this to plan out their GATE preparation schedule accordingly.

• ### Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus:

The first step is to check the Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus for GATE 2017 before starting the preparation. It will allow candidate to decide exam study strategy with classification of strong and weak topics.

• ### Important Topics/Books & Authors:

Check the main topics and books recommended as below for detailed study.

#### Engineering Mathematics-

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, and solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.

Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals. Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

#### Electrical Circuits:

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-I relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation. Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.

Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.

#### Signals and Systems:

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

#### Digital Electronics

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flip-flops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to- digital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-to- analog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

#### Analog Electronics

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers; applications of opamp: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.

#### Measurements

SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true RMS meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

#### Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire),thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.

#### Communication and Optical Instrumentation

Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing.

#### Control Systems:

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feed forward, and ratio controllers.

 S.No. GATE Instrumentation Engineering Topics Recommended Books and Author 1. Mathematics B.S. Grewal Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig 2. Network Theory Engineering Circuit Analysis by Steven M. Durbin , Jack E. Kemmerly , William H. Hayt 3. Analog Electronics Fundamentals of Microelectronics by BEHZAD RAZAVI GATE – Electronics & Communication (Analog Circuits Volume 5 Of 10) by R K Kanodia 4. Digital Electronics Solved previous year questions from EC and IN streams 5. Signals and Systems Signals And Systems (Schaum’s Outline Series)  by H P HSU Signals & Systems by Alan V. Oppenheim 6. Communication Systems Modern Digital and Analog Communication System by B P LATHI 7. Electrical and Electronic Measurements A Course In Electrical And Electronic Measurements And Instrumentation by A K SAWHNEY 8. Control System Automatic Control Systems by B C KUO 9. Process Control Process Control: Modeling, Design, And Simulation  by  B. Wayne Bequette 10. Transducers Introduction to Measurements and Instrumentation by ARUN K GHOSH

• ### GATE Sample Papers:

Experts and Toppers firmly believe that one of the important exercises in GATE Preparation is practice with the help of previous year GATE papers. There are many advantages to this:

♠ GATE Question Paper Pattern becomes familiar and you can get comfortable knowing the pattern of questions to expect.

♠ The type of questions that may be asked in the actual exam can be generally gauged along with the difficulty levels of questions with constant practice.

♠ With more practice, you can improve on your speed and hone your time management skills.

♠ You can plan your exam strategy by solving as many as possible sample papers.

The best preparation for GATE is solving last year papers. You get all of them on the GATE website.

• ### GATE Mock Test:

Online calculator will be an integral part of the online test system for GATE. This will also be incorporated in the GATE Mock Test. Mock test is the simulation of GATE exam, and is online. Aspirants are advised to attempt it so that they get a fair idea of the actual entrance test. The GATE Mock Test will have an online calculator, timer and, will just be like the real GATE exam. So it is advantageous to attempt it in order to get a feel of the exam.

• ### Analyse of Previous Year GATE IN Paper:

Study and analyze the topics that featured in GATE 2016 and previous years in Instrumentation Engineering Paper. The analysis gives an insight of the topics covered and question paper.

Not to Missed Guidelines During Preparation

• Study in the best manner that is suited to you. Scheduling and planning is very important.
• Prepare short notes on all topics during your study for GATE. This can be used for revision in the last days of GATE preparation.
• Ensure that you cover Engineering Mathematics and General Aptitude in the course of your preparation. Preparing for them and doing them well will ensure a good score.

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